ARGENTINA

ARGENTINA
From the Latin argentum, meaning "silver".

AUSTRALIA

AUSTRALIA
Originally from Latin terra australis incognita - "unknown southern land".

BAHAMAS

BAHAMAS
From Spanish Baja Mar – "Low (Shallow) Sea".

BRAZIL

BRAZIL
Named after the brazilwood tree, so-named because its reddish wood resembled the color of red-hot embers.

CANADA

CANADA
From the word Kanata meaning "village" or "settlement".

CHINA

CHINA
The English name of China comes from the Qin Dynasty.

COLOMBIA

COLOMBIA
Named after the explorer Christopher Columbus, despite the fact that he never actually set foot in the country.

CUBA

CUBA
From Taíno Indian Cubanacan — "centre place".

EGYPT

EGYPT
From ancient Greek (attested in Mycenean) "the land below the Aegean sea".

ENGLAND

ENGLAND
Derived from the Old English name Englaland, literally translatable as "land of the Angles".

FRANCE

FRANCE
French derivation of Francia, "Land of the Franks". A frankon was a spear used by the early Franks, thus giving them their name.

GERMANY

GERMANY
From Latin "Germania", of the 3rd century BC, of unknown origin.

GREECE

GREECE
From the Latin Græcus (claimed by Aristotle to refer to the name of the original people of Epirus).

GUYANA

GUYANA
From the indigenous peoples who called the land "Guiana", meaning "land of many waters", in reference to large number of rivers in the area.

HAITI

HAITI
Taíno/Arawak Indian, "Hayiti/Hayti" meaning "mountainous land".

INDIA

INDIA
Derived from the original name Sindhu of the Indus River in modern-day Pakistan, which gave its name to the land of Sind.

IRELAND

IRELAND
After Éire from Proto-Celtic *Iweriu "the fertile place" or "Place of Éire (Eriu)" a Celtic fertility goddess.

ISRAEL

ISRAEL
Israel takes its name from the biblical patriarch Jacob, later known as Israel, literally meaning "struggled with God/he struggles with God".

ITALY

ITALY
From Latin Italia, the name having entered Latin from a non-Latin source. The etymology of Italia probably directly relates to an ancient Greek word italos (bull).

JAMAICA

JAMAICA
Taíno/Arawak Indian "Xaymaca" or "Hamaica", "Land of wood and water" or perhaps "Land of Springs".

JAPAN

JAPAN
The English name of "Japan" comes from Chinese (pinyin: rìben), or "sun-origin", i.e. "Land of the Rising Sun", indicating Japan as lying to the east of China (where the sun rises).

MEXICO

MEXICO
After the Mexica branch of the Aztecs.

PORTUGAL

PORTUGAL
From medieval Romance Portucale, from Latin portus, "port" and Cale, the name of the Roman port of Cale (modern Porto).

PUERTO RICO

PUERTO RICO
Christopher Columbus named the island "San Juan Bautista" in honour of Saint John in 1493. The Spanish authorities set up a capital city called Puerto Rico (meaning "rich port").

SCOTLAND

SCOTLAND
Land of the Scots, from Old English Scottas, "inhabitants of Ireland."

SOUTH AFRICA

SOUTH AFRICA
Afri was the name of several peoples who dwelt in North Africa near the provincial capital, Carthage. The Roman suffix "-ca" denotes "country or land".

SOUTH KOREA

SOUTH KOREA
After the Goryeo Dynasty, the first Korean dynasty visited by Persian merchants who referred to Koryo (Goryeo) as Korea.

SPAIN

SPAIN
"isle of hyraxes" (any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals).

SWEDEN

SWEDEN
An old English plural form of Swede. The exact development of the ethnonym remains uncertain, but it certainly derives from the Old English Sweoðeod.

TRINIDAD

TRINIDAD
Christopher Columbus encountered the island of Trinidad on July 31, 1498 and named it after the Holy Trinity.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.
The term "United States" comes from the end of the Declaration of Independence: "We, therefore, the representatives of the united States of America, in general congress, assembled...".



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