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Ancient Egypt was a long-standing civilization in north-eastern Africa. It was concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River, reaching its greatest extent in the second millennium BC, during the New Kingdom. It reached from the Nile Delta in the north, as far south as Jebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. Extensions to the geographic range of ancient Egyptian civilization included, at different times, areas of the southern Levant, the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea coastline, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Western body (focused on the several oases). Ancient Egypt developed over at least three and a half millennia. It began with the incipient unification of Nile Valley polities around 3150 BC, and is conventionally thought to have ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered and absorbed Ptolemaic Egypt as a state. This last event did not represent the first period of foreign domination; however the Roman period was to witness a marked, if gradual transformation in the political and religious life of the Nile Valley, effectively marking the end of independent civilizational development.

The civilization of ancient Egypt was based on balanced control of natural and human resources, characterised primarily by controlled irrigation of the fertile Nile Valley; the mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions; the early development of an independent writing system and literature; the organization of collective projects; trade with surrounding regions in east / central Africa and the eastern Mediterranean; and finally, military ventures that exhibited strong characteristics of imperial hegemony and territorial domination of neighbouring cultures at different periods. Motivating and organising these activities were a socio-political and economic elite that achieved social consensus by means of an elaborate system of religious belief under the figure of a semi-divine ruler (usually male) from a succession of ruling dynasties, and related to the larger world by means of polytheistic beliefs.

Egyptian Goddess Maat

Egyptian Scarab Symbol

Right Eye Of Ra - Eye Of Horus

King Tut's Golden Mask

Flag Of Egypt

Winged Scarab

Egyptian Ankh Symbol

Anubis - Eqyptian Diety

Eqyptian Sacred Bull

Ammon - Egyptian Diety

Egyptian Sphynx

Nefertiti - Right Eye Open

Isis - Egyptian Diety

Egyptian Eagle Hieroglyph

Ptolemaic Winged Sphynx

Ptolemaic Ba-Bird Symbol

Egyptian Ba-Bird Symbol

Ra-Horakhty Egyptian Diety

Ammut - Eqyptian Diety

Masonic Eye Of Providence

Eqyptian Mummy Case

Left Eye Of Horus

Right Eye Of Horus

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