1. Hydrogen

1. Hydrogen
Element number 1, Hydrogen. Discovered in the late 18th Century by Henry Cavendish. It's the lightest element and it's name means "water-former".

2.Helium

2.Helium
The second element in the periodic table, and the second most abundant in the universe - although it's relatively rare on Earth.

3. Lithium

3. Lithium
Lithium is an alkali metal, discovered by Johan August Arfwedson in 1817.

4. Beryllium

4. Beryllium
Beryllium is an alkali earth metal, but it doesn't occur naturally in isolation, only in compounds.

5. Boron

5. Boron
Boron was discovered in 1808 by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard.

6. Carbon

6. Carbon
Carbon: present in all living things, with one of its radioactive isotopes used for dating ancient versions of these.

7. Nitrogen

7. Nitrogen
Our atmosphere is approximately 78% nitrogen.

8. Oxygen

8. Oxygen
We need oxygen for respiration and combustion.

9. Fluorine

9. Fluorine
Fluorine was isolated in 1886 by Henri Moissan, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

10. Neon

10. Neon
Used in lights and lasers, Neon is all kinds of awesome.

11. Sodium

11. Sodium
Twenty Sodium atoms walk into a bar, followed by Batman.

12. Magnesium

13. Aluminium

13. Aluminium
Aluminium is really useful and very expensive to extract from its ore, making aluminium recycling worthwhile.

14. Silicon

14. Silicon
Silicon is used in electronics, including photovoltaic panels. It's also a component of sand.

15. Phosphorus

15. Phosphorus
Phosphorus means "light-bearer", named after the glow emitted when white phosphorus is exposed to oxygen.

16. Sulphur

16. Sulphur
An outdated name for Sulphur is Brimstone.

17. Chlorine

17. Chlorine
Chlorine exists as a diatomic molecule forming a yellow/green gas. But it's usually found in compounds on Earth.

18. Argon

18. Argon
Argon is an inert gas used in lightbulbs to prevent the filament burning out, and it makes up a little under 1% of the Earth's atmosphere.

19. Potassium

19. Potassium
We all need potassium in our diet, but eat healthily and you should be fine. Apparently bananas are good for it.

20. Calcium

20. Calcium
Calcium is abundant in your bones, and in hard water.

21. Scandium

21. Scandium
There isn't very much Scandium in the world, and it's difficult to extract, so commercial uses for it weren't developed properly until the 1970s.

22. Titanium

22. Titanium
Titanium is tough and resistant to corrosion, which makes it great for use in industry. And body piercing. It's my jewellery metal of choice - shiny and resilient.

23. Vanadium

23. Vanadium
Vanadium was discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801.

24. Chromium

24. Chromium
Chromium is shiny and beautiful.

25. Manganese

25. Manganese
Manganese is used in steel production and in alloys with aluminium, among other industrial uses.

26. Iron

26. Iron
Many oxides of iron are red, like rust, and red soils with a high iron content.

27. Cobalt

27. Cobalt
Cobalt is used in beautiful blue pigments.

28. Nickel

28. Nickel
Nickel is used to plate other metals, and as an alloy in coins.

29. Copper

29. Copper
Copper is used for electrical wiring because it has the best trade-off of conductivity and price.

30. Zinc

30. Zinc
Zinc, along with copper, can be alloyed to form brass.

31. Gallium

31. Gallium
In its pure form, Gallium melts at around 29C. This property makes it useful for alloying in applications such as semiconductors.

32. Germanium

32. Germanium
Germanium was isolated in 1886 by Clemens Winkler, and named after his home country, Germany.

33. Arsenic

33. Arsenic
Arsenic is a metalloid used in batteries, alloying, and semiconductor dopants.

34. Selenium

34. Selenium
Selenium was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius.

35. Bromine

35. Bromine
Bromine is generally unpleasant. At room temperature it is a volatile, toxic and foul-smelling liquid.

36. Krypton

36. Krypton
Krypton is an inert gas, with applications in lighting and photography.

37. Rubidium

37. Rubidium
Rubidium was discovered by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in 1861.

38. Strontium

38. Strontium
Strontium metal turns a yellowish colour when exposed to air.

39. Yttrium

39. Yttrium
Yttrium is a metal, first isolated in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler.

40. Zirconium

40. Zirconium
Zirconium is a shiny, soft, corrosion-resistant metal. The cubic form of the compound zirconium dioxide is a clear, tough mineral used in jewellery.

41. Niobium

41. Niobium
Niobium used to be named Columbium, but its name was changed officially in 1949.

42. Molybdenum

42. Molybdenum
Molybdenum has a high melting point and is typically used in high-strength alloys.

43. Technetium

43. Technetium
Technetium has no stable isotopes, and almost all of it is produced synthetically.

44. Ruthenium

44. Ruthenium
Ruthenium is unreactive and has similar properties to Platinum.

45. Rhodium

45. Rhodium
Rhodium is a rare and precious metal, and when found in nature it's usually found as the free metal.

46. Palladium

46. Palladium
Like platinum, palladium is mostly used in catalytic converters and jewellery.

47. Silver

47. Silver
Silver has the best electrical conductivity of any metal, and if money were no object, we'd wire everything using it. Unfortunately we usually have to work to a budget, so a compromise is made by usi

48. Cadmium

48. Cadmium
Cadmium is a bluish-white metal and a by-product of zinc production.

49. Indium

49. Indium
Indium is a metal so soft that it can be cut with a knife.

50. Tin

50. Tin
Tin has more stable isotopes than any other element.

51. Antimony

51. Antimony
Antimony's symbol, 'Sb' comes from its Latin name, stibium.

52. Tellurium

52. Tellurium
Tellurium is named after the Latin word for earth.

53. Iodine

53. Iodine
Iodine is necessary for the thyroid gland to function properly.

54. Xenon

54. Xenon
Xenon is a noble gas, used in lighting and general anaesthetic.

55. Caesium

55. Caesium
Caesium melts at 28C.

56. Barium

56. Barium
Barium sulphate is used in medical applications where it is necessary for things to show up on x-rays.

57. Lanthanum

57. Lanthanum
The addition of small amounts of lanthanum to steel improves its malleability, ductility and impact resistance.

58. Cerium

58. Cerium
Cerium is named after the dwarf planet Ceres.

59. Praseodymium

59. Praseodymium
Praseodymium is used in glass to filter out the yellow wavelengths of light sources.

60. Neodymium

60. Neodymium
Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by Carl Auer von Welsbach.

61. Promethium

61. Promethium
The name of the element Promethium was originally spelt prometheum.

62. Samarium

62. Samarium
Samarium spontaneously ignites at 150C.

63. Europium

63. Europium
Europium is named after Europe. The continent, not the band.

64. Gadolinium

64. Gadolinium
Gadolinium is only ever found combined in a salt in nature.

65. Terbium

65. Terbium
Terbium was discovered in compound form by Carl Gustaf Mosander in 1843, but it was not isolated in pure form until much later.

66. Dysprosium

66. Dysprosium
Dysprosium takes its name from the Greek word dysprositos, meaning "hard to get".

67. Holmium

67. Holmium
Holmium is named after Stockholm.

68. Erbium

68. Erbium
Erbium forms rose-coloured salts.

69. Thulium

69. Thulium
Thulium was first isolated from its ore in 1911.

70. Ytterbium

70. Ytterbium
Ytterbium is a rather dangerous substance, with it being an irritant to the eyes and skin, and a fire and explosion hazard. Nice.

71. Lutetium

71. Lutetium
Lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Charles James.

72. Hafnium

72. Hafnium
Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of Hafnium in 1869, but it was not discovered until 1923.

73. Tantalum

73. Tantalum
Tantalum is named after Tantalus, a hero from Greek mythology.

74. Tungsten

74. Tungsten
Tungsten has the highest melting point and tensile strength of any elemental metal.

75. Rhenium

75. Rhenium
Rhenium is named after the River Rhine.

76. Osmium

76. Osmium
Osmium's name means 'smell', and is derived from the Greek word osme.

77. Iridium

77. Iridium
Iridium has brightly-coloured salts, and so it is named after Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow.

78. Platinum

78. Platinum
Platinum's name means 'little silver'.

79. Gold

79. Gold
Gold's symbol 'Au' comes from the Latin word, aurum.

80. Mercury

80. Mercury
Mercury is sometimes referred to as quicksilver, and used to have the name Hydragyrum.

81. Thallium

81. Thallium
Thallium forms toxic salts, which have historically been used in poisons and insecticides.

82. Lead

82. Lead
The 'Pb' symbol for lead comes from its Latin name, plumbum.

83. Bismuth

83. Bismuth
Bismuth has similar chemical properties to lead, so it is used as a replacement for lead in alloys - lead is far more toxic.

84. Polonium

84. Polonium
Polonium was discovered in 1898 by Marie & Pierre Curie.

85. Astatine

85. Astatine
Astatine is named from the Greek word astatos, meaning 'unstable'.

86. Radon

86. Radon
Radon gas occurs as a product of radioactive decay of other elements in the earth. It is more common in areas with higher levels of granite rock, such as the South-West of England.

87. Francium

87. Francium
Francium was formerly known as eka-caesium and actinium K, which sound like far cooler names to me.

88. Radium

88. Radium
Radium was discovered in 1898 by Marie & Pierre Curie.

89. Actinium

89. Actinium
Actinium was discovered in 1899 by André-Louis Debierne.

90. Thorium

90. Thorium
Thorium is named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder.

91. Protactinium

91. Protactinium
Our main source of protactinium is spent fuel rods from nuclear reactors.

92. Uranium

92. Uranium
Uranium occurs naturally and is found in small quantities in soil, rock and water everywhere.

93. Neptunium

93. Neptunium
Dmitri Mendeleev predicted in the 1870s that an element existed in space 93 of the Periodic Table, but Neptunium was not synthesised until 1940.

94. Plutonium

94. Plutonium
Plutonium was synthesised in 1940 by a team working for Glenn T. Seaborg and Edwin McMillan.

95. Americium

95. Americium
Americium is named after... America. Surprise!

96. Curium

96. Curium
Curium is named after Marie & Pierre Curie.

97. Berkelium

97. Berkelium
Berkelium is named after Berkeley, California, where it was discovered in 1949.

98. Californium

98. Californium
Californium is named after the University and State of California, where it was discovered in 1950.

99. Einsteinium

99. Einsteinium
Einsteinium was discovered as a component of the debris of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952.

100. Fermium

100. Fermium
Fermium is named after nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi.

101. Mendelevium

101. Mendelevium
Mendelevium is named after the creator of the Periodic table, Dmitri Mendeleev.

102. Nobelium

102. Nobelium
Nobelium is named after Alfred Nobel, and was discovered in 1966.

103. Lawrencium

103. Lawrencium
Lawrencium is named after Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron.

104. Rutherfordium

104. Rutherfordium
Rutherfordium is named after Ernest Rutherford, a notable physicist based at Manchester University.

105. Dubnium

105. Dubnium
Dubnium is named after Dubna, a Russian town housing the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.

106. Seaborgium

106. Seaborgium
Seaborgium is the only element to be named after a person who was alive at the time of its discovery.

107.Bohrium

107.Bohrium
Bohrium was discovered in 1976, and named after Niels Bohr. The name nielsbohrium, with symbol 'Ns' was originally proposed, but this was changed in 1997.

108. Hassium

108. Hassium
Hassium was officially discovered in 1984 by a German team,and named after the German state of Hesse.

109. Meitnerium

109. Meitnerium
Meitnerium was discovered in 1982. Its most stable isotope has a half-life of 7.6 seconds.

110. Darmstadtium

110. Darmstadtium
Darmstadtium was first synthesised in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1994.

111. Roentgenium

111. Roentgenium
Roentgenium was discovered in 1994, and named after the physicist Wilhelm Roentgen.

112. Copernicium

112. Copernicium
Copernicium was synthesised in a laboratory in Darmstadt in 1994.

113. Ununtrium

113. Ununtrium
Element 113 has not yet been properly named, 'Ununtrium' is used as an interim name.

114. Flerovium

114. Flerovium
Flerovium's named was officially accepted very recently, in 2012. This is due to the requirement for verification of an element's discovery before it can be officially named.

115. Ununpentium

115. Ununpentium
Element 115 has been assigned the temporary name 'ununpentium', while its discovery awaits official confirmation.

116. Livermorium

116. Livermorium
Livermorium is named after the city of Livermore, California, where it was discovered in 2000.

117. Ununseptium

117. Ununseptium
Ununseptium was discovered in 2010 in Dubna, but its discovery has not been officially verified and hence it has a placeholder name until it is assigned a permanent name.

118. Ununoctium

118. Ununoctium
Only a few atoms of ununoctium have ever been synthesised, and its discovery is not officially recognised.


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